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Flow States

Have you ever experienced a state of complete immersion in an activity, losing track of time and effortlessly achieving peak performance? Being in "the zone" with your work or activity? This state of heightened focus, productivity, and enjoyment is commonly known as a flow state.

What is a Flow State

Flow, as coined by positive psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, refers to a mental state in which individuals become fully absorbed and immersed in a challenging activity. Time seems to fly by, self-consciousness diminishes, and optimal performance is achieved with a sense of effortlessness. Flow states are commonly associated with heightened creativity, productivity, and happiness.

Csikszentmihalyi's visual representation of how flow works [1]

What is Happening in our Brain

Brain Waves

When individuals enter a flow state, there are notable changes in brainwave patterns. Flow states are characterized by an increase in alpha brain waves, indicating a relaxed but focused state of mind. Alpha waves are associated with creativity, calmness, and the integration of information across different brain regions. Simultaneously, there is a decrease in beta waves, which are associated with active thinking and analysis. This shift in brainwave patterns contributes to the state of hyperfocus and the effortless fluidity experienced during flow states.

Brain Regions

The prefrontal cortex (PFC), responsible for conscious thought and self-evaluation, tends to deactivate during flow. This decrease in PFC activity explains the sense of self-loss and lack of self-consciousness experienced during flow states.

At the same time, the basal ganglia, which play a crucial role in habit formation, motor control, and reward processing, become highly active during flow. The heightened engagement of the basal ganglia enables the seamless execution of complex tasks, leading to a sense of mastery and enjoyment.

Additionally, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), involved in cognitive control and executive functions, decreases in activity during flow. This reduction in DLPFC activity allows for the inhibition of distractions and intrusive thoughts, further enhancing focus and immersion in the present moment.

Nootropics and Flow State

Nootropics, substances that enhance cognitive function, are potential tools to support flow states. Three potentially beneficial options:

Caffeine: Found in coffee, tea, and energy drinks, caffeine is a widely used stimulant that can increase alertness and focus, potentially helping you get into a flow state. However, excessive amounts or sensitivity to caffeine can lead to jitters or restlessness.

L-Theanine: Often found in green tea, L-Theanine is an amino acid known for its calming and focusing effects. When combined with caffeine, it may promote a relaxed yet attentive mental state, which can be conducive to flow.

Creatine: Primarily known for its benefits in physical performance, creatine has also shown promise in improving cognitive function. Some studies suggest that it may enhance working memory, attention, and mental energy, potentially aiding in achieving a flow state.

Life Moments and a Flow States

Certain life moments are more likely to produce flow experiences due to their inherent characteristics. Activities that offer a balance between challenge and skill, clear goals, immediate feedback, and a sense of control tend to foster flow states. Examples include: engaging in sports, playing musical instruments, participating in creative arts, or even pursuing hobbies that align with one's passions.

Additionally, individuals who engage in activities that leverage their strengths and interests are more likely to experience flow. For some, this may involve problem-solving, while for others, it could be engaging in social interactions or engaging in intellectual pursuits.


Flow states offer a glimpse into the immense potential of human cognition and performance. By understanding the brain mechanisms at play during flow states, including the shift in brainwave patterns, activation and inhibition of specific brain regions, and the potential role of nootropics, we can unlock opportunities to access these states more intentionally. By seeking out activities that align with our skills, interests, and offer a balance of challenge, we can invite flow states into our lives more frequently, enabling us to tap into our true potential and experience greater fulfillment in our pursuits.


Daniel Glassbrook, PhD

Daniel is a sports scientist and researcher, previously working as the first team sports scientist for the Newcastle Falcons Rugby Club, and a postdoctoral researcher in sports related concussion at Durham University.


  1. Wright, D. (2019). Mind Lab Pro. Nootropics for Flow State - Brain-Boosters to Initiate Supreme Task Performance. Avaliable at

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